On the role of topography and of boundary forcing in the ocean circulation

  • 197 Pages
  • 1.50 MB
  • 6854 Downloads
  • English
by
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution , Woods Hole, Mass
Submarine topography., Ocean curr
Other titlesBoundary forcing in the ocean circulation.
Statementby Paola Cessi.
SeriesWHOI -- 87-39., WHOI (Series) -- 87-39.
The Physical Object
Pagination197 p. :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15191585M

Download Citation | On the role of topography and of boundary forcing in the ocean circulation | This thesis consists of two loosely related problems, both of which analyze some consequences of Author: Paola Cessi. A similar response to topography is described in the literature on ocean canyons.

After an initial transient period, stretching in the deep layers in contact with the topography leads to a cyclonic circulation over the canyon (see Allen and Hickeyfor a review).Cited by: by topography controls where the bottom friction alters the PV, which can lead to different PV states being attained for separate subbasins along a channel.

Introduction There is an apparent paradox concerning the role of friction in the wind-driven ocean circulation. On the one hand, it is widely accepted that friction is important. A particularly important mechanism for the large-scale circulation is the boundary layer phenomenon, which accounts for amacroscopic part of the energetic fluxes.

We will show here using a very simplified model that it explains in particular the Western intensification of : Laure Saint-Raymond. tance, and practicality, of using bottom topography as controls in models of the ocean circulation.

The results are envisioned as only the first step toward exploration of the problem in more complex models, and alsotoward employing, for example, lateral boundary conditions (free.

Roles of meteorological, boundary condition, and initial condition forcing. A set of sensitivity experiments was designed to investigate the role of the different forcing factors on the circulation of the Sea of Marmara: meteorological forcing, outflow/inflow conditions, and.

Bottom topography plays a very important role in oceanic circulation, which is one reason why the flat-bottomed ocean basins are usually of only academic interest. This influence is especially large for barotropic flows, since the presence of density stratification would otherwise tend.

Seasonal energy cycle of wind-driven ocean circulation with particular emphasis on the role of bottom topography. ocean circulation and hence may forcing pushes the North Atlantic circulation. To accurately assess the role of the ocean circulation in modulating climate variability, a first-order descrip-tion of the transport pathways that constitute the MOC and a general grasp of their relative significance are needed.

Schmitz and Richardson () found that al-most one-half of the Florida Current transport is of.

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B) the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily. C) divergent plate boundaries occur when continental and oceanic crust meet. D) continents lack analogous mid-ocean ridges (i.e. mid-continental ridges).

E) the ocean floor is more dense than continental material. The greater Agulhas system around southern Africa forms a key component of the global ocean circulation 1,2,3 ().This system feeds the upper arm of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

ocean, thus modulating the course of climate change.

Description On the role of topography and of boundary forcing in the ocean circulation FB2

Anthropogenic warming, in turn, can influence global ocean circulation through enhancing ocean stratification by warming and freshening the high latitude upper oceans, rendering it an integral part in understanding and predicting climate over the 21st century.

The interactions between the MOC. The ocean has an interconnected current, or circulation, system powered by wind, tides, the Earth’s rotation (Coriolis effect), the sun (solar energy), and water density differences.

The topography and shape of ocean basins and nearby landmasses also influence ocean currents. The Atlantic and Indian Oceans are roughly half the eastwest width of the Pacific Ocean, which impacts the way that each ocean's circulation adjusts to changes in forcing. The Indian Ocean has no high northern latitudes, and therefore no possibility of cold, dense water formation.

For the resonant response to wind forcing, the reflections of equatorial waves at the meridional boundaries are important. The study of Han et al. () has demonstrated that the reflected Rossby waves from the eastern boundary play an important role in the strength and structure of the Wyrtki jets.

The role of the western boundary reflection, however, has never been demonstrated explicitly. Topography may constrain oceanic circulation (and thus basal melt–freeze patterns) through its influence on the potential vorticity (PV) field. However, melting and freezing induce a local circulation that may modify locations of heat transport to the ice shelf.

Large-scale circulation and production of stratification: effects of wind, geometry and diffusion. Journal of Physical Oceanogra – The Thermohaline Circulation (THC): Concept, Structure and Climatic Effect Concept and structure The Thermohaline Circulation (THC) is a global-scale ocean circulation driven by the.

Harald Sverdrup () showed that the circulation in the upper kilometer or so of the ocean is directly related to the curl of the wind stress if the Coriolis force varies with latitude. Henry Stommel() showed that the circulation in oceanic gyres is asymmetric also because the Coriolis force. Flow-topography interactions are thought to play a dominant role in jet separation.

Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that. the ocean. Low pressure center is established over land while high pressure center is established over oceans. Winds blow from ocean to land and bring large amounts of water vapor to produce heavy precipitation over land: A rainy season.

During winters, land surface cools down fast and sets up a high pressure center. Winds blow from land to.

physics of the atmosphere, the ocean and the sea ice, information in the form of boundary conditions should be provided for all sub-systems of the climate system not explicitly included in the model: the distribution of vegetation, the topography of the ice sheets, etc.

The lateral boundary is an important element in the coastal circulation on all scales because it can constrain the flow in both the atmosphere and the ocean, and there is often close correspondence between changes in the currents and the local wind forcing.

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This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean.

the upper ocean of the subpolar gyre and upon reach-ing the western boundary, they are advected southward by the deep western boundary current, leading to latitudi-nally coherent MOC variability.

In section 4, we address the origin of the decadal buoyancy anomalies, specifically the role of the MOC, atmospheric forcing, and baroclinic. Plate tectonics and the ocean floor. Bathymetry, the shape of the ocean floor, is largely a result of a process called plate outer rocky layer of the Earth includes about a dozen large sections called tectonic plates that are arranged like a spherical jig.

Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defense, scientific research.

Ocean and atmospheric circulation play an essential role in sustaining life by moderating climate over much of Earth's surface. An important part of the circulation of heat and freshwater and other sea water constituents are ocean surface currents.

Their strength and variability play a role in weather and climate, impact environments for all life on Earth. Other articles where Topography is discussed: continental landform: Basic concepts and considerations: that implies progressive changes in topography from an initial designated morphology toward or to some altered form.

The changes can only occur in response to energy available to do work within the geomorphic system in question, and it necessarily follows that the evolution will cease when. Seafloor topography influences ocean circulation in two basic ways. First, it steers ocean flows. Second, it provides barriers that prevent deep waters from mix- ing, except within deep passageways that connect ocean basins or in hydraulically controlled overflow regions.

Climate - Climate - Circulation, currents, and ocean-atmosphere interaction: The circulation of the ocean is a key factor in air temperature distribution. Ocean currents that have a northward or southward component, such as the warm Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic or the cold Peru (Humboldt) Current off South America, effectively exchange heat between low and high latitudes.

The circulation in an ocean basin containing an island is studied under nearly geostrophic, beta plane dynamics. The model is a fluid of uniform density driven by wind forcing or sources and sinks of mass at the upper boundary of the flow.

The circulation is studied analytically, numerically, as well.It follows the topography south of Sri Lanka and feeds its water into the Arabian Sea (Tomczack and Godfrey, ).

McCreary et al. () used a two and a half-layer, thermodynamic, numerical model, to test the forcing in the Bay of Bengal. They made a main run with wind forcing and a run without wind in the Bay of Bengal only.1.

Introduction. Ocean ventilation is the process by which ‘young’ surface waters, which have recently been in contact with the atmosphere, are injected into the ocean interior and exported away from their sources [1,2].The rate and distribution of ocean ventilation play an important role in Earth's climate through their regulatory influence on the oceanic uptake of heat and freshwater [3.