Cover of: On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission |

On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission

new waves in brain information processing
  • 191 Pages
  • 1.81 MB
  • English

Landes Bioscience, Chapman & Hall , Austin, New York
Astrocytes., Glutamic acid -- Physiological effect., Glutamic acid -- Receptors., Neurotransmitter receptors., Neurotransmission., Astrocytes -- physiology., Glutamates -- physiology., Brain -- physiology., Synaptic Transmis
Statement[edited by] Elisabeth Hansson, Torsten Olsson, Lars Rönnbäck.
SeriesNeuroscience intelligence unit
ContributionsHansson, Elisabeth, 1955-, Olsson, Torsten, 1937-, Rönnbäck, Lars.
LC ClassificationsQP363.2 .O5 1997
The Physical Object
Pagination191 p. :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL667980M
ISBN 100412134713
LC Control Number97013739

Astrocytes in glutamate neurotransmission Article Literature Review (PDF Available) in The FASEB Journal 9(5) April with 59 Reads How we measure 'reads'.

GLUTAMATE METABOLISM. Although glutamate was known to have central nervous system (CNS) effects for more than 75 years, it was not until that it was truly acknowledged as fulfilling the criteria of a neurotransmitter (Fonnum, ).Glutamate was originally speculated to serve a metabolic function in the CNS (Krebs, ), as it was found within numerous Cited by: The fine-tuned biochemical specialization of astrocytes allows these cells to respond to subtle changes in neurotransmission by dynamically adjusting their anaplerotic and glycolytic activities, and adjusting the amount of glutamate oxidized for energy relative to direct formation of glutamine, to meet the demands for maintaining by: The glutamate-glutamine cycle refers to the compartmentation of glutamate and glutamine between neurons and glia (see Figure ).During glutamatergic neurotransmission neurons release glutamate into the extracellular space; the glial glutamate transporters rapidly remove the releases glutamate.

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Saved in: On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission: new waves in brain information processing / a On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission: |b. On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission. Austin: Landes Bioscience ; New York: Chapman & Hall, (OCoLC) Online version: On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission.

Austin: Landes Bioscience ; New York: Chapman & Hall, (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors. A number of leading experts in neuroscience including intermediary metabolism, enzymology and transporter physiology have contributed to this book which provides comprehensive discussions of these different aspects of the functional importance of the glutamate-glutamine cycle coupling homeostasis of glutamatergic, excitatory neurotransmission to basic aspects of brain energy Format: Hardcover.

Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain. Inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate work together to control many processes, including the brain’s overall level of excitation.

The contributions of GABA and glutamate in extra-neuronal signaling are by far less widely recognized.

In this chapter, we first Author: Christiane S. Hampe, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto. Glutamine (Gln) is found abundantly in the central nervous system (CNS) where it participates in a variety of metabolic pathways.

Its major role in the brain is that of a precursor of the neurotransmitter amino acids: the excitatory amino acids, glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp), and the inhibitory amino acid, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA).Cited by: Astrocytes Supply Glutamine to Maintain Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.

Astroglial glutamate transport is crucial for neuronal glutamatergic transmission by operating the glutamate–glutamine shuttle.

Glutamate accumulated by astrocytes is enzymatically converted into glutamine in the cytosol by the astrocyte-specific enzyme glutamine synthetase. Astrocytes are a sub-type of glial cells in the central nervous are also known as astrocytic glial cells.

Star-shaped, their many processes envelop synapses made by neurons. In humans, a single astrocyte cell can interact with up to 2 million neurons at a time. Astrocytes are classically identified using histological analysis; many of these cells express the intermediate Location: Brain and Spinal cord.

3 Neurotransmitter Receptors in Astrocytes 63 Hollmann M, Heinemann S () Cloned glutamate receptors.

Description On astrocytes and glutamate neurotransmission EPUB

Annu Re v Neur osci 31 – Author: Alexei Verkhratsky. The functional activity in the brain is primarily composed of an interplay between excitation and inhibition. In any given region the output is based upon a complex processing of incoming signals that require both excitatory and inhibitory units.

Moreover, these units must be regulated and balanced such that an integrated and finely tuned response is by: Start studying Glutamate excitatory neurotransmission. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

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The glutamate/GABA–glutamine cycle is a metabolic pathway that describes the release of glutamate or GABA from neurons which are then taken up into astrocytes (star-shaped glial cells).

In return, astrocytes release glutamine to be taken up into neurons for use as a precursor to the synthesis of glutamate or GABA. Research of the last few decades has promoted astrocytes from cells providing physical and metabolic support to neurons to being their indispensable partner in neurotransmission (for exhaustive reviews see [1,2]).One of the crucial tools which astrocytes use to communicate with neurons and to modulate their function are neurotransmitter receptors located on astrocytic Cited by: In this cycle glutamate released from neurons is taken up by surrounding astrocytes, amidated by the action of glutamine synthetase to glutamine which can be transferred back to the neurons.

The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is like a stealth technology, hiding the glutamate molecule which would be highly toxic to neurons due to its. Glutamate is one of the most prevalent neurotransmitters released by excitatory neurons in the central nervous system (CNS); however, residual glutamate in the extracellular space is, potentially, neurotoxic.

It is now well-established that one of the fundamental functions of astrocytes is to uptake most of the synaptically-released glutamate, which optimizes neuronal Cited by:   A single-wavelength genetically encoded sensor of extracellular glutamate is reported.

The sensor—iGluSnFR—is bright and photostable under both one- and two-photon illumination and is shown to Cited by: Get this from a library. The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle: amino acid neurotransmitter homeostasis. [Arne Schousboe; Ursula Sonnewald;] -- Fundamental biochemical studies of basic brain metabolism focusing on the neuroactive amino acids glutamate and GABA combined with the seminal observation that one of the key enzymes, glutamine.

The basis of information transfer in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) consists of excitation and inhibition of neuronal networks. The messengers responsible for propagating these excitatory and inhibitory actions are amino acid neurotransmitters [].The principal excitatory neurotransmitter is glutamate, while the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter is gamma Cited by: 4.

The release of transmitters from glia influences synaptic functions. The modalities and physiological functions of glial release are poorly understood. Here we show that glutamate exocytosis from. Furthermore, homeostatic changes in glutamate neurotransmission appear in response to prolonged block/enhancement of electrical activity.

Here, we describe different approaches to evaluate alterations in glutamate neurotransmission regarding glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters by using primary cultures of neurons and by: 1. Although their properties differ somewhat, as do their anatomical distribution, glutamate receptors are best known for mediating glutamateâ s role in learning and memory through plasticity, or modifica- tion, of channel properties; enhanced glutamate neurotransmission; and gene expression (Barco et al., ).

On Astrocytes and Glutamate Neurotransmission: New Waves in Brain Information Processing (Neuroscience Intelligence Unit) (1st Edition) by Elisabeth Hansson, Torsten Olsson, Lars Ronnback, Lars Rönnbäck Hardcover, Pages, Published ISBN / ISBN / Book Edition: 1st Edition.

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states.

This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on Author: Priscila Hachimine-Merli. In addition to their nutritive and metabolic functions, astrocytes have been recently discovered to actively participate in and modify neuronal activity by releasing neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and ATP (1–6).Astrocytic Ca 2+-dependent glutamate release modulates neuronal activity in hippocampal slices (7–9) and cell cultures (10, 11).

title = "Lrp4 in astrocytes modulates glutamatergic transmission", abstract = "Neurotransmission requires precise control of neurotransmitter release from axon terminals. This process is regulated by glial cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully by: Journal of Neurotransmission.

PDF. Somjen. Nervenkitt: Notes on the History of the Concept of Neuroglia. Glia. PDF. Kimelberg. Functions of Mature Mammalian Astrocytes: A Current View. The Neuroscientist. PDF. Fellin.

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Communication between neurons and astrocytes: relevance to the modulation of synaptic and. Under normal conditions glutamate is only transported from the CNS into blood.

Most glutamate is produced in neurons from glutamine (via glutaminase), which is mainly formed in astrocytes and transported into neurons. A close cooperation between neurons and astrocytes is therefore essential for the production of glutamate and GABA.

A Role for Astrocytes in Dopamine-Glutamate Interactions of the Prefrontal Cortex By Peter John Vollbrecht Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Vanderbilt University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Neuroscience May, Nashville, Tennessee Approved:File Size: 2MB.Glutamate is the most prominent neurotransmitter in the body, and is the main excitatory neurotransmitter, being present in over 50% of nervous tissue.

Glutamate was initially discovered to be a neurotransmitter in insect studies in the early s. Glutamate is also used by the brain to synthesize GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the .In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other is by a wide margin the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.

It is used by every major excitatory function in the vertebrate brain, accounting in total for well over 90% of the synaptic Receptors: NMDA, AMPA, kainate, mGluR.